Web Design Business Course


The complete foundation and blueprint to building and growing your 6-figure, lifestyle freedom based web design business.

Version 2.0 is live! 🎉


Web Design Business Pro

The full roadmap and complete guide to building a 6-figure web design business that’s ideal for you, your clients and your freedom based lifestyle to work when and where you want.


Learn the ins and outs of building a 6-figure web design business


Learn how to get better clients and raise your pricing


Gain the freedom lifestyle to work when and where you want


Avoid the hassle of creating your own contracts, proposals, questionnaires & scripts


Avoid piece-mealing your business together with random, scattered resources


Avoid years of wasted time, energy and money by learning lessons the hard way on your own

“I would never have the confidence I have now without this course. It really gives you the step by step process you need to be successful”

Alexis of AlexisTMyers.com

“Before going through the course, I was so scattered. Now, I know exactly what to do, when to do it, how to do it and it’s been a game-changer for my business”

Matt of MattRobinson.ca

“The only regret I have is not taking this course sooner. It would’ve saved me so much time

Lisa of LiveCreative.co.za

What’s in the box 


Business Setup


Contracts & Invoicing


Estimating & Proposals


Pricing & Packages


SOP's & Templates


Sales & Scripts


Getting Clients


Client Onboarding


Project Management


Content Collection


Client Revisions


Client Training


Recurring Revenue


Marketing your Biz


How to Niche

and a whole lot more…

“I went through this course before starting my business and in 6 months I have 10 active clients

William of radfordresults.com

“As someone with a masters degree I have to say…this course is more valuable than ANY college course I’ve ever taken”

April Ray of aprilraycreative.com

“It would’ve taken years to get to this point in my business just after taking this course”

Juliana of pipermache.com

Curriculum Overview

All lessons are videos accompanied by written posts, links and additional resources.

The main curriculum contains 7 modules with 6 lessons each. Total 42 videos at 15 total hours of watch time.

Bonuses include the complete client roadmap checklist, my full business Child Theme for Divi users and more!!


Module 1 - Preparing & Setting Up Your Business

How to prepare and set up your web design business for success:

  • Preparing for Your Business (12:25)
  • Planning & Goal Setting (20:58)
  • Freelancer or Owner? (28:05)
  • Business Setup Checklist (8:53)
  • Choosing Your Tools (29:00)
  • Choose Your Business Model (21:51)
Module 2 - Web Biz in a Box

Templates, scripts, resources and downloads for you to grab and go:

  • Special & Hidden Website Pages (14:17)
  • Questionnaires (19:12)
  • Proposals (22:59)
  • Contracts (19:04)
  • Invoicing (15:12)
  • My 17hats Template – Proposal/Contract/Invoice (10:54)
Module 3 - Pricing & Offers

An in-depth look at building your web design packages and offers and how to price them for profit.

  • Creating Your Offers (18:32)
  • Pricing Variables – WHAT to Price (19:27)
  • Price Ranges – WHERE to Price (16:57)
  • Pricing Models – HOW to Price (14:14)
  • Pricing Your Packages (19:11)
  • Pricing Ongoing Work (13:35)
Module 4 - Sales & Getting Clients

Real world, proven strategies (that are working now) on how to sell with confidence, find quality leads and land amazing clients.

  • Sales 101 for Web Designers (38:08)
  • Choose Your Sales Strategy (24:29)
  • Funneling & Weeding Out (22:54)
  • Finding Clients (33:25)
  • Getting Clients (30:41)
  • Getting High Value Clients (28:16)
Module 5 - Onboarding & Project Management

A detailed step-by-step guide on how to onboard clients, collect content effeciently, manage projects and avoid the dreaded scope creep.

  • Client Onboarding (26:58)
  • Setting Client Boundaries (13:07)
  • Collecting Content (31:04)
  • Managing Projects (26:00)
  • Managing Multiple Projects (28:31)
  • Avoiding Scope Creep (15:08)
Module 6 - Revisions, Client Training & Off Boarding

A step by step guide on how to present your designs, handle client revisions, train clients and off-board like a pro.

  • Presenting Your Designs (15:39)
  • Handling Client Revisions & Feedback (26:42)
  • Training Clients (20:28)
  • Client Off-Boarding & Moving Forward (21:52)
  • Client Launch Pack (20:50)
  • Getting Testimonials & Reviews (27:27)
Module 7 - Growing & Marketing Your Business

Once the client experience is complete and a project is live, this is a detailed guide on how to promote, market, build deeper relationships with your clients, build recurring income and create lifetime clients.

  • Promoting Your Work (24:58)
  • Marketing Your Web Business (23:19)
  • Recurring Revenue (20:04)
  • Getting Repeat Work (14:12)
  • Raising Your Rates (15:20)
  • Choosing a Niche (22:25)
Downloads & Resources

Resources and implementation tools that you can apply to your business immediately:

  • Client Roadmap Checklist
  • Josh’s Business Divi Child Theme
  • Course Links & Additional Resources

“The value that is inside this course…I don’t even know how to explain it”

Jennifer of jennylainedesigns.com

“It’s crazy to get so much real world experience all bundled into one course”

Austyn of exaltodesign.com

Meet Your Guide

I’m Josh, a web design freelancer/solopreneur turned web design business owner.

I started my web design business in 2010, built it and scaled it to $250K annually with with a very small, remote team before selling it in 2020 to teach full time.

This course combines my experience as a web designer of 10years+ along what my agency is doing and what’s working well right now for many of my students who have been through this course and who are thriving out in the web design wild.

When I started my business, I fumbled into every stage with no clear direction or guidance on what to do and it cost me years of hard lessons learned and a receeding hair line. I’m here now to help you build your business fast, love what you do every day and keep your hairline strong!

👇 A great fit for👇

Web Freelancers

White-labelers and web design freelancers looking to expand your network and build your business

Web Solopreneurs

Web designers who are serious about working ON their business to prepare to scale

Web Business Owners

Web design small team and agency owners looking to grow, scale, hire and go past the 6-figure range

Builder & platform agnostic

While I use WordPress and the Divi Theme, the course is built for using ANY tools you prefer. In fact, nearly 50% of students span the spectrum from Squarespace, Webflow, Showit, hand coders and more

Also included when you join:

Josh’s Business Divi Child Theme for Your Business
Templates for questionnaires, proposals, contracts & more
Sales scripts, client follow-up emails and other templates
Lifetime access as course will be added onto
Course certificate upon completion

Ready to make more, work less and build a thriving web business?

2 ways you can join 👇

One time purchase

Lifetime access


Best for those who want long-term access to course content and prefer a more DIY approach

✅ Lifetime access to the course curriculum
✅ Monthly Q&A session with Josh
✅ Access to the student support center

Web Designer Pro™

Access to all courses


Best for those who want access to all courses, community and coaching with Josh

✅ Access to all  of Josh’s courses
✅ Weekly Q&A sessions with Josh
✅ Direct message coaching with Josh
✅ Don’t go it alone with Pro community support
✅ Monthly live industry expert trainings
✅ Access to the entire Pro training archive

👉 Get all the details or

“This course has been a game-changer for me. I have a confidence now that I’m set up for growth”

Leigh Ann of hilltopwebsolutions.com

“This course has everything you need to build a successful web business. It really is business in a box

Ayanna Mcclintic

A few important notes:


This is a theme and platform agnostic course. I use WordPress and the Divi theme but many student alumni have used various platforms and builders.


While I use a certain set of project and client management tools, you can use whatever you prefer. The lessons are built in a way that you can take the templates and use the tools you like. Or you can follow my toolbox exactly 🙂


This covers the entire business side of a web design project and is not the technical process of building and launching a website. I have my Web Design Process Course for that.


This covers many additional and recurring service options available to web designers but for more in depth training on hosting and maintenance plans, I have my maintenance plan course for that.


Do I have access to all the lesson when purchased?
Absolutely! This is not a “drip style” course. You’ll have full access to go through any section and lesson you want, at any time.
Do I have lifetime access to the course?
You have full access to the course for as long as it’s up! (which should be a very long time ) There’s no enrollment deadline or course closing.
Will the course be added onto?

Yep! Version 2.0 is live now and when certain requests and questions come in, I’ll likely add extra lessons and resources to the course.

Are there tests or quizzes?
Heck no. No quizzes, tests or any sort of academic feeling with this course. It’s really more of a training guide. If you’re like me, you hate tests and had enough of those in school?
What format is the course in?

This is an on-demand, go at your own pace course. It’s not drip style or open/closed at any point. All lessons have videos with captions, written content supporting each lesson and all templates and downloads are provided.

Will the course ever close or expire?

This course contains information, methods and strategies that are mostly timeless so it will be up for a LONG TIME. As in years. It will be updated, added onto and any information that could potentially be outdated after a number of months or years will be revised.

If and when the course were ever to close, you would have full rights to download the content and it would be provided for you to download the video and text files.


30 reviews for Web Design Business Course

  1. Mike McCloud

    A Game-Changer for Aspiring Entrepreneurs: My Experience with Josh’s Business Course

    Before enrolling in Josh’s Business Course, I was aware that I needed help setting up the foundational elements of my business. However, I did not fully grasp just how much I was missing until I dove into the course content. Each module was packed with valuable information that was both insightful and immediately applicable.

    The course covered a wide array of topics, from the basics of business setup to more complex processes. I appreciated the depth and clarity of the information provided. It’s worth mentioning that the content is quite dense in some areas; I find myself revisiting several sections to fine-tune my understanding and implementation of the concepts discussed.

    The boost in confidence I’ve gained is invaluable—something that could have taken years to build on my own has been fast-tracked, thanks to Josh’s expert guidance.

    The well-structured processes I’ve established as a result of this course will undoubtedly be appreciated by my future customers. They ensure a smooth, professional interaction that reflects well on my business.

    For anyone on the fence about taking this course, I highly recommend it—it’s an investment in your business’s future that is likely to pay off manifold.

  2. Taka

    I’ve been a freelance copywriter/content writer the past couple of years and I am taking this course to transition into web design. I am still in the transition phase but it has already paid dividends because recently a client approached me for copywriting work and I negotiated the price. Most of my work has been from agencies and I have rarely dealt with direct clients. Glad I’ve been taking this course and now I feel like I am confidently communicating with this client. This course is value packed and I highly recommend it!

  3. J.L. Gore

    Josh’s Web Design Business Course is loaded down with must-know information for anyone who is in the web design business or is planning to be. Additionally, while this course is geared toward web designers specifically, it contains information that is vital to doing good business in general, no matter your industry. I would recommend this course to anyone who is serious about getting a solid grasp on what it takes to start and run a successful web design business!

  4. James Durkin

    Laying a great foundation and grasping the basics is so critically important in all things you do. Josh’s Business course is no different. Josh goes into great detail on building a solid foundation and getting things in place so that when you are ready to hit the ground running you will be prepared. One of my favorite takeaways from the business course was the content collection piece. It is our job to educate the client and guide them. I too have dropped the ball on this a time or two thinking the client would just know what to do when asked. We must educate them and empower them. Launch packs is another great take away for me. Thank you Josh.

  5. Jacqueline Guarente

    WOW! This is an amazing course. I have a good understanding of design, but nothing concerning the running of a small solo business. The Business Course was exacting (and more) what I needed.

    Josh has some of the best and most thorough courses I have ever taken. They have helped me become more confident in running my business. Everything you get, with all the details, references, and documents is worth every penny. Thank you, Josh!

  6. Jon Pointer

    I couldn’t be happier with Josh’s business course. I had concerns about investing my money in the course, unsure whether it would deliver, but after listening to Josh’s podcasts for a while and reading/watching other reviews, I decided to take the risk. I’m very glad I did. From personal contact through video messages, email, and the student portal, to precise how-to instructions, usable templates, tool recommendations, and a caring, personal, and unfiltered approach, Josh has delivered real value. I am just beginning my journey toward a web development business, and I am thankful to have the tools and knowledge that Josh provided right from the start. Josh is the real deal—caring, knowledgeable, and genuinely wanting to help you. Thanks, Josh!

  7. Galilee Potgieter

    This course was packed with templates and valuable insight into the structure and organization of a web design business. I would definitely class it as valuable, worth the time and an absolute must to anyone wanting to seriously make a living at web design. I am looking forward to implementing everything I learnt in my own business. Thank you Josh!

  8. cycle924

    Holy Cow! So much important information, this helps me become well-prepared for the business of doing business successfully as a small business website designer. Thanks Josh, I’ll be returning to this course many times as a valuable resource to get it all done right!
    -Shawn K.

  9. Pandora Taylor-Cheal

    Josh’s business course is such an inspiration.

    Whilst I knew we created great work, our processes and organisation needed an overhaul to get us to the next level and that is exactly what Josh’s course has given us.

    Josh delivers the course in such a down to earth authentic and supportive way, provides tonnes of interaction, and bonus material.

    Really excited to launch our 2.0 version of our business incorporating lots of Josh’s suggestions!!

    Thanks so much!

  10. Robyn Fehrenbacher

    I first discovered Josh through his podcast, and that’s where I started to know, like, and trust him. I just completed his Web Design Business Course, and I can’t say enough good things about it. Josh’s teaching style is down to earth, no fluff, and with a genuine desire for his students to succeed by using his methods, templates, and experiences from more than a decade in web design that he so generously shares. Such a classy guy and what a worthwhile investment! Thanks so much Josh!!

  11. mooredesigndan

    Since Josh shows the way when building his business, it really opened my eyes, and it gives me hope to grow my entrepreneur business. I’ve gotten one client, via pro-bono, but I’m excited to continue growing. If you have any interest in growing a web design business and living the life of your dreams, then this is the course for you!

  12. kellymstadler

    I’m taking your advice and going to charge for the next one. Your course is amazing! It really gives me the confidence to move forward and feel like I’m not fumbling so much. There really is years of knowledge there and I’m so thankful for all of the hard work put into it! I love how you give practical advice and actionable steps. You are straight to the point with all the needed email templates, the sample client contract, how to calculate your pricing, how to receive content, when and how to scale your business, and the overall flow of running a web design business. This was so helpful for me and I’m excited to be upgrading to the bundle!

  13. Dana Wilson

    This course is amazing! As a beginner to design and entrepreneurship, it probably would have taken me years to learn everything Josh covers. He goes above and beyond in each lesson and clearly cares about helping students and sharing everything he can. I know this course will serve me way beyond the week or so it took me to complete it. I will be referring back to it constantly as I start my business and eventually scale and expand. Highly recommend!

  14. John Murphy

    The Web Design Business Course that Josh offers is an absolute treasure trove of practical, down-to-earth, actionable information that I have not found elsewhere. In fact, the guidance Josh offers is far more valuable to me than the MBA in marketing I have, and which I consider to be a waste of time and money. You’ll find real info here about pricing, acquiring new clients, onboarding new clients, and keeping a constant stream of leads coming to your site plus other advice from someone who’s actually done it. I wish I’d found this course years ago! Just get it now — you can thank Josh later!

  15. Becky Troup

    The Web Design Business Course gave me the handholding I needed for various areas of starting my business. Not having to piece together a client onboarding checklist is a lifesaver, and that’s just one of the many resources provided. For web designers who want to get working sooner instead of being bogged down with figuring out administrative tools, creating templates, and learning the hard way what saves you time in the long run, this is the right course.

  16. April Ray

    I implemented the new funnel pages from Josh’s business course (contact form, fit and pricing page, website questionnaire, etc.) and have already received two leads since Friday!

    Per my old business coach, I use to have it where you had to book a call to contact me about a quote and in 10 months of having that up I received ZERO leads through my contact page and form. Set up this new contact/quote system last week and already have two! I can already see this is SUCH a better fit for my business! Thanks Josh!

  17. Drew Baldridge

    Listen! It does not matter what type of business you are trying to build. The practical advice given in Josh’s Web Design Business Course is for anyone wanting to build structure, systems and processes into their business model, whether a freelancer or a small business. My main business genre is video production, however, I am talking away a load of great advice and solid business practices that I plan to apply to my non-web design centered business. I cannot even begin to describe just how beneficial this course was for me. It is worth every dollar and I have no doubt, that what is gained by taking it will supersede by far, any price of admission.

  18. Ricardo Elizondo

    How do you describe a course that saves you 5 years (or more) of mistakes in your Web Design journey?

    I would describe it as priceless. That’s what this Josh’s Web Design Business Course is and I’m very grateful to have invested in it. Literally, the downloadable templates alone pay for the course. And that’s only a small part of the value Josh brings.

    In short, this course allowed me to solidify my pricing, services, contracts and internal processes to do more with less time.

    Most importantly, Josh shares all his knowledge in a transparent and honest way.

    Note: I am from Costa Rica and the course content worked perfectly for my context.

  19. Alexis Myers

    I originally found Josh because I was searching for a web designer contract template. That search led me to his FB group, which then led me to his website and courses, and what a goldmine I landed on.

    Not only is he an excellent teacher who breaks down the details so you get everything you need, but he also goes ABOVE AND BEYOND giving you way more than you could have ever hoped for.

    Literally, no one should start a web design business without going through Josh’s course. You will leave so incredibly equipped to start and even scale your business.

    I landed my first e-commerce client charging more than I’ve ever charged for a website before, all thanks to the course material and Josh’s help in the FB group.

    I never would have had the confidence or wherewithal to charge what I did without the backup of the “hidden pages” I had in place, the complete lead generation/client intake system, the contract, proposal, and email templates, etc., and the added encouragement and advice he gave.

    Every single part of what he’s offered in this course has helped me launch my business AND work with clients with confidence, and I couldn’t be more grateful!!

  20. Shannon Morris

    I learned SO much from this course and am very glad I decided to buy it. I watched the videos a couple months ago but I refer back to several of them still. Josh gives tons of detail about each topic and shows you inside his business so that you can shave off tons of time figuring it out on your own. He’s very specific and doesn’t tell you something vague about what you should do in your business without giving you a template, an example, or a tool to use. I have gained so much value from every video in this course – there’s no fluff or wasting your time. He’s a great teacher and mentor to have – definitely get this course!

  21. Jeremy Collins

    I am thoroughly impressed with the amount of detail that Josh has put into this course. It has been a complete game-changer for me and my business.

    You’ll save hundreds of hours just from implementing his sales scripts and client questionnaires because Josh already knows what works and what doesn’t. I went into this course with very little sense of direction in my business, and now I know exactly what to do with a prospect at any given point in the buyer’s journey.

    Josh also teaches you his processes that save time and increases your chances of getting a conversion. My favorite example of this is his process of qualifying leads. I can’t tell you how many proposals I’ve sent to prospective clients who were most likely never going to follow through. Now I have a super simple system that qualifies every lead that comes in, saving me countless hours of drafting proposals for clients who can’t afford my rates or may not be a good fit for my business.

    This is the first course that I’ve purchased from Josh, and I was hesitant to sign up at first. Josh even mentioned that he saw I added and removed the course from my cart several times before finally committing. After going through the course, I can confidently say that I made a fantastic decision. The p̶r̶i̶c̶e̶ investment of this course is highly undervalued for what it delivers. It’s without a doubt the single best thing I’ve done for my business all year, and I’ve only just begun to put all of the pieces together in my brand new set of systems.

    Thanks, Josh!

  22. Chris Salvaggio

    5 Stars TWICE and two thumbs up!

    I want to start off by saying I am so excited!

    Before even completing the course I used Josh’s exact system, the same exact tools, and just simply did exactly what he trains on, and I closed my first web development sale for $3497 for a medium-sized site. It was the first lead I pitched out the gate too. I even hand drew my concept and presented it via video as Josh suggested. I have nothing but praise for this man Josh Hall. I have never had a mentor before but I believe this is what it must be like. When you take a course like this or any course, the value proposition is the most important thing. This class has taken me from a competent web designer to a confident CEO of my own agency. I use the resources page at the end of the course for reference almost every day. I can’t wait to take all of the courses offered. I could not be more grateful. Thank you Josh!

  23. sandyburns

    The best thing about Josh’s courses is that he’s offering lessons learned the hard way from his own experience. This isn’t like reading a textbook or watching YouTube tutorials, this is the hard truth about what works and what doesn’t when it comes to building a successful web design business. And being a freelancer, I love that this course is just as applicable to my business as it would be to someone managing a team or building an agency.

    Throughout the course, Josh is transparent about his own business. You get to see what tools he uses, what processes he has in place for client and project management, and learn how those processes have been honed over the years. It will save you a ton of time, because if you don’t take his course, you WILL learn these lessons on your own… the hard way.

    No matter where you are in your web design journey, whether you’re just starting out, or you’ve been at this for a few years (like me), you can benefit from this course. It’s a game-changer, to say the least. Thanks so much Josh!

  24. Adam Wills

    I’m so glad that Josh charges a flat fee for this course and not a commission on my business’s projected revenue after taking his course. If he did, I’m certain he’d be a multi-millionaire. Seriously… that’s how valuable this course is! If you’re looking to propel your web design business into 6 figures and beyond, this course is a must. Even if you just want to streamline your business so you can live the lifestyle you want to live, this course is for you.

    I was hesitant to take this course at first because I felt like I already had a pretty good system in place. But I took the course anyway because I am always looking to improve in all areas of my business. This course is about so much more than just gaining knowledge or sharing philosophies and principles. Josh actually gives away EVERYTHING that has put his own business on autopilot and made it successful. In fact, I would say that is the single greatest value in this course. Don’t get me wrong, it’s not that Josh’s talking head videos aren’t packed with tons of value, but he actually let’s you swipe all of his templates, automations, and processes in a way that makes them simple to adopt into your own existing practices.

    Thanks to Josh, and this course, I’m starting off my 2020 feeling confident and ready for growth. My advice: quit reading these reviews and just buy the course already. You won’t regret it, trust me!

  25. Josh Collier

    This course covers a lot of the pain points of web design and development businesses. Josh talks about some of the more difficult topics such as scope creep, getting clients, retaining clients and getting content from them. Josh does it in a clear and easy to understand way and leads you through a plan that will really get your processes built.

    He is really good at sharing his own personal experiences as well as trials and tribulations and the solutions needed in hopes that you can avoid them in your own business.

    Overall it was a very practical course full of actionable steps to streamline or scale your business to use your time as efficiently as possible.

    Thanks for the great course!

  26. mikethemacguy

    I have followed Josh for some time and have always enjoyed everything he does. When researching a topic or an issue with any of my sites, my first reaction is to search for the topic and add “Josh Hall” to the search – I don’t just want to know how to fix or design something, I want to know if Josh has covered the subject first and foremost. His easy-going style and knowledge – and willingness to share – is a great thing to have in my WordPress and Divi toolbox.

    Once I found out he was doing a business related course, I couldn’t wait to sign up. It is a decision I did not regret, and neither will you. The course is exactly what I have come to expect from Josh – and more. Great content, patient and thorough approach – and no stone is left unturned. Josh will instruct you on everything you’d want to know and also will go over topics you never even thought of. He’s been there and made the mistakes (now you don’t have to) and had the successes (and now you can, too). This course is a MUST for anyone who wants to get serious about making web design into an actual business. Highly recommended!

  27. Martin Robson

    I run my own web design & associated service business, which comprises me and occasional contributors. I already do a lot of what Josh talks about in this course – but he does it better! I’ve found it very helpful to validate that I’m on the right track with some of the things I am doing and how to improve in the things I haven’t yet nailed.

    What I really enjoy are the real world examples. Josh doesn’t just say “use form x” but actually shows us an actual example of form x that he has used with a real customer. You can see that this is not a theoretical course but is based on real life. It’s the same for the processes he walks thorough – you get to see them actually used. This includes money examples too – we get to see real figures. This is so helpful.

    The overall combination of transparency, solid advice and downloadable checklists and other documents is a winner.

  28. Christian van ‘t Hof

    Hi Josh!

    Thanks for the great business course! Just finished it and I wanted to say that your course was really worth the investment.

    I was a bit hesitant about it being too focussed on the US, but more than 90% of all the content can easily be applied in Brazil as well.

    I’m in the middle of preparing my web design business to go from freelancer to full time, and after this course I’m more excited and more confident that I’m able to get it done.

    Thanks for all the great content and I’m quite sure it won’t take long before diving into another one of your courses!

  29. Patty Schuster

    Josh’s Web Design Business Course has been such a blessing as I transition from graphic design to web design. This info would have taken me YEARS to gather on my own. It has also given me the most important thing I need to get started working with clients – confidence. Josh is a natural at teaching – he explains everything in an easy to understand way, and makes learning enjoyable. I’m so glad I decided to take this course, it truly is the best investment I could have made as I start my web design business.

  30. Rob Stephens

    Josh lifts the lid on how he was able to grow a six-figure business working from home and with virtual assistants, without going down the traditional agency route, which is simply incredible!

    His tutorials are fun to watch and he covers all the topics you’d want to learn more about, such as pricing, getting new clients, maintaining clients etc. He also discusses some of his own experiences, which keeps the learning interesting.

    I couldn’t recommend his business course highly enough!

Add a review

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *